Determination of a stress-dependent rock-physics model using anisotropic time-lapse tomographic inversion

Nicolas Mastio and Pierre Thore and Marianne Conin and Guillaume Caumon. ( 2020 )
in: GEOPHYSICS, 85:4 (C141-C152)

Abstract

ABSTRACTIn the petroleum industry, time-lapse (4D) studies are commonly used for reservoir monitoring, but they are also useful to perform risk assessment for potential overburden deformations (e.g., well shearing, cap-rock integrity). Although complex anisotropic velocity changes are predicted in the overburden by geomechanical studies, conventional time-lapse inversion workflows only deal with vertical velocity changes. To retrieve the geomechanically induced anisotropy, we have adopted a reflection traveltime tomography method coupled with a time-shift estimation algorithm of prestack data of the baseline and monitor simultaneously. For the 2D approach, we parameterize the anisotropy using five coefficients, enough to cover any type of anisotropy. Before applying the workflow to a real data set, we first study a synthetic data set based on the real data set and include velocity variations between baseline and monitor found in the literature (vertical P-wave velocity decrease in the cap rock and isotropic P-wave velocity change in the reservoir). On the synthetics, we measure the angular ray coverage necessary to retrieve the target anisotropy and observe that the retrieved anisotropies depend on the offset range. Based on a synthetic experiment, we believe that the acquisition of the real case study is suitable for performing tomographic inversion. The anisotropic velocity changes obtained on three inlines separated by 375 m are consistent and show a strong positive anomaly in the cap rock along the 45° direction (the δ parameter in Thomsen notation), whereas the vertical velocity change is surprisingly almost negligible. We adopt a rock-physics explanation compatible with these observations and geologic considerations: a reactivation of water-filled subvertical cracks.

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BibTeX Reference

@ARTICLE{MastioGeophys2020,
    author = { Mastio, Nicolas and Thore, Pierre and Conin, Marianne and Caumon, Guillaume },
     title = { Determination of a stress-dependent rock-physics model using anisotropic time-lapse tomographic inversion },
   journal = { GEOPHYSICS },
    volume = { 85 },
    number = { 4 },
      year = { 2020 },
     pages = { C141-C152 },
       doi = { 10.1190/geo2019-0526.1 },
  abstract = { ABSTRACTIn the petroleum industry, time-lapse (4D) studies are commonly used for reservoir monitoring, but they are also useful to perform risk assessment for potential overburden deformations (e.g., well shearing, cap-rock integrity). Although complex anisotropic velocity changes are predicted in the overburden by geomechanical studies, conventional time-lapse inversion workflows only deal with vertical velocity changes. To retrieve the geomechanically induced anisotropy, we have adopted a reflection traveltime tomography method coupled with a time-shift estimation algorithm of prestack data of the baseline and monitor simultaneously. For the 2D approach, we parameterize the anisotropy using five coefficients, enough to cover any type of anisotropy. Before applying the workflow to a real data set, we first study a synthetic data set based on the real data set and include velocity variations between baseline and monitor found in the literature (vertical P-wave velocity decrease in the cap rock and isotropic P-wave velocity change in the reservoir). On the synthetics, we measure the angular ray coverage necessary to retrieve the target anisotropy and observe that the retrieved anisotropies depend on the offset range. Based on a synthetic experiment, we believe that the acquisition of the real case study is suitable for performing tomographic inversion. The anisotropic velocity changes obtained on three inlines separated by 375 m are consistent and show a strong positive anomaly in the cap rock along the 45° direction (the δ parameter in Thomsen notation), whereas the vertical velocity change is surprisingly almost negligible. We adopt a rock-physics explanation compatible with these observations and geologic considerations: a reactivation of water-filled subvertical cracks. }
}